PFOA & PFAS: Important Information About Drinking Water

Livingston's PFOA/PFOS Timeline

Livingston's Water Department has been working proactively to monitor and reduce PFOA/PFOS in the Township's water supply since mid-2019.

The NJ Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) began signaling its intent to propose new regulatory standards for PFOA and PFOS in drinking water in the summer of 2019. 

View information about the timing and steps that have been taken by the Township (PDF) 

What are "PFAS"?

Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are an emerging group of omnipresent compounds that can be found in products treated to make them non-stick, notably food packaging, carpets, leather and apparel, textiles, paper and packaging materials, and non-stick cookware. It has spread throughout the environment and been found in soil and water.  Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the most common of these PFAS compounds and have been detected in drinking water sources. These compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and have been for many years.

Please see the PFAS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for more information.  A brief summary is found below

PFAS in the Township of Livingston

  • In 2021 the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) enacted a limit for PFOA in 2021 of 14 parts per trillion (ppt), the most stringent limit in the country. They have enacted limits for other PFAS compounds as well, including a limit of 13 ppt for PFOS. The EPA and many other states do not currently have a limit for PFOA.
  • The Township has detected PFOA over the NJDEP limit in some wells and is currently in violation at four out of eleven well treatment facilities. The Township water did not suddenly change, but the regulations have. Public notices regarding these violations were mailed to all customers in September 2021, December 2021, March 2022, June 2022 and September 2022. Quarterly notices will continue to be distributed until treatment construction has been completed.
  • The Township is committed to designing and constructing treatment at the affected well facilities as quickly as possible. We are working with NJDEP and retained the services of Mott MacDonald, our professional engineer, in this effort. 
  • The Township water system is intermingled, and different wells are on at different times supplemented by purchased water from other utilities, making it difficult to characterize the exact proportion of water a house is receiving from any given source at any given time. 
  • The Township is limiting the use of the impacted wells as much as possible, but cannot meet the system demands, particularly during the peak water usage during the summer, without running some of these wells. Please note Well 10, the well treatment facility with the highest levels of PFOA, will remain shut down until a treatment facility is installed.
  • Exposure to PFAS in drinking water is primarily from ingestion. Exposure to PFAS through other household uses of water such as showering, bathing, laundry and dish washing is not significant. Reverse Osmosis and Filters with the certification NSF 53 can reduce the level of PFAS compounds in water. 

PFAS Remediation Status

The Township has committed approximately $15 million for design and construction of new treatments. Consultant Mott McDonald has been hired to develop the designs. We are upgrading our affected well facilities to treat PFOA using a combination of granulated activated carbon and ion exchange resins. The project is being separated into two phases because of the large number of facilities involved. Design is underway, and permitting with the NJDEP is expected to begin in June 2022 and July 2022 with a bid date of December 2022 and January 2023 for the two phases, respectively. Construction will begin in early 2023. Our goal is to complete construction as quickly as possible; however, timing is subject to NJDEP approval and to the availability of specialized labor and materials, supplies of which are in high demand given the large number of water systems in New Jersey that need to build similar treatment systems in response to the new regulation.

Public Notices

December 2022

The following information was sent by mail to all customers in December 2022:

Livingston Township December 2022 Letter to Water Customers (PDF)  

December 2022 - NJDEP Notice Regarding PFAS in Wells (PDF)

September 2022

The following information was sent by mail to all customers in September 2022:

Livingston Township September 2022 Letter to Water Customers (PDF)  

September 2022 - NJDEP Notice Regarding PFAS in Wells (PDF)

June 2022

The following information was sent by mail to all customers in June 2022:

Livingston Township June 2022 Letter to Water Customers (PDF)  

June 2022 - NJDEP Notice Regarding PFAS in Wells (PDF)

March 2022

The following information was sent by mail to all customers in March 2022:

March 2022 - NJDEP Notice Regarding PFAS in Wells (PDF) 

December 2021

The following information was sent by mail to all customers in December 2021:

Livingston Township December 2021 Letter to Livingston Water Customers (PDF)

December 2021 - NJDEP Notice Regarding PFAS in Wells (PDF)

September 2021

The following information was sent by mail to all customers in September 2021: 

Livingston Township September 2021 Letter to the Community about PFAS (PDF)  

September 2021 - NJDEP Notice Regarding PFAS in Well (PDF)

NJ Dept. of Health: PFAS Fact Sheet (PDF) 

Additional Resources & Information

View all drinking water quality data collected by the Livingston Township Division of Water:

NJ Department of Environmental Protection:

US Environmental Protection Agency:

NSF International:

Environmental Working Group: