Water Main Breaks
What Are Water Mains?
Water mains are underground pipes that carry drinking water to homes and businesses. Livingston’s water mains range from 6 to 16 inches in diameter. Individual properties have an underground smaller diameter water service pipe that connects them to the water main.
Water Main Breaks
As more than 60 percent of Livingston’s water mains are 50 years or older, breaks in the pipes are both unavoidable and unpredictable. Each break brings its own set of challenges. Small breaks are easier to fix, but can be harder to locate. Large breaks can result in service outages cause traffic delays and flloding.
What causes breaks?
In addition to age, other factors in water main breaks include:
- Installation configuration
- Previous repairs
- Variations in water pressure
- Seasonal temperature changes
How do you know when a pipe breaks?
We regularly monitor water pressure at various points in the system — a drop in pressure can signal a problem. But often, the Water Department staff learns about a break when it is reported by a resident in one of the following ways:
- Reports a Concern through the Township’s website,
- Calls the Water Department phone number (973-535-7951), between 8:30 am - 4:30 pm, or
- Calls the main number at the Police Department (973-992-3000) after hours
If crews find no obvious source for the running water, they run tests to help determine whether it’s drinking or groundwater. If it’s drinking water, but no break is visible, the crew uses leak-detection equipment to “listen” for and locate the break.
How do you fix a Water Main Break?
Once crew members identify the location of the issue, they close the valves on the pipe to stop the flow of water to the broken section. This might cause a temporary service disruption to some properties. After isolating the broken section, the crew repairs or replaces it, depending on the type and severity of the break.
In most cases, repairs are made within several hours to a day after the first report. However, repairs on major water transmission mains may require complex repairs that take longer to complete.
Main breaks that leave customers without water service are given highest priority for repair. When a break is identified, the water is turned off to the immediate area and repairs begin. Though crews work quickly, work can take eight hours or more.
I've reported the emergency. Now what?
When we receive a call or Service Request about a leak or break, we take several steps.
- Investigate: When you call, you’ll be asked some questions to collect information about the location and severity of the situation so our staff can respond effectively.
- Evaluate: When a crew arrives on-site, they’ll determine if it’s necessary to shut down the water main. In many cases, the main break itself may already have interrupted water service or reduced water pressure for customers.
- Inform: We’ll let affected residents know as soon as possible when there’s a water main break. However, when there are unsafe conditions or property damage, we may have to perform an emergency shutdown, giving us little opportunity to provide advance notice. Sometimes, the presence of a crew in the area and low or changing water pressure are the only initial notices you may have of a water main break.
- Accommodate: If critical businesses or organizations — such as restaurants, office buildings, schools and hospitals — are affected by a water main break, Water Department staff members will work to accommodate them with temporary services as feasible.
Repairing the Main
When a water main break is confirmed, a crew will set up a work zone with appropriate traffic control measures. The crew will also turn off the main (immediately, if needed) and call in an emergency utility markout as required by law. Emergency Markouts may take up to 2 hours to complete as other utilities, such as gas, telecom, and electric, must respond. After the utilities have been marked, the crew will excavate and secure a trench and begin repairs. Crews work continuously to repair breaks and restore water service; however, unforeseen challenges can arise causing the process to take longer, including:
- Older malfunctioning valves
- Delays marking utilities or mismarked utilities
- Working around other utilities (gas, telephone, power or fiber optics)
- Weather conditions
- Equipment problems
- Safety of repair crews
Notifying residents in the immediate area of the problem is, of course, a primary concern. Sometimes customers will be notified directly via fliers. Information on water main repairs is typically shared on Facebook, Twitter, the Township’s website and the Rave Alert/Smart911 (Emergency Notifications) system. In the case of a serious, widespread situation, the local media may be notified. Residents may be asked to conserve water or boil water during the emergency. It’s always a good idea to have a few gallons of water stored away in case of emergency.
Discolored Water, Reduced Pressure & Other Quality Issues
If may experience discolored water or reduced pressure during and after a water main break. Please see Discolored Water, Reduced Pressure & Other Quality Issues page for more information.